CS8: Egypt

Egypt has already passed the internationally defined threshold for water scarcity and edges dangerously close to “absolute water scarcity,” defined by the United Nations as less than 500 m3 of water per person per year (estimates place Egypt’s current water resources at 560 m3 per person per year). About 85% of total GW abstractions in Egypt are provided by the Nile Delta aquifer, in which the site of Abu Rawash WWTP is located. Although the aquifer is replenished directly by the Nile water, it is also in direct contact with the Mediterranean Sea (north) and the Suez Canal (east). Since 1981 the GW availability is decreasing annually in a linear fashion by 0.1 billion m3. On the other hand, water quality is affected by increased pollution load from the heavy agricultural activities and high population density. Agricultural, domestic, and industrial effluents are the main sources of contamination of the Nile Delta aquifer. Specifically, the effluent from Abu Rawash WWTP, has problems with nutrients, CEC, ARGs ad MP.

Under the NINFA project, data obtained from this case study from monitoring will contribute to the GW Knowledge observatory that will be created under the NINFA project and will help with the validation of the NINFA Platform.